Friday, May 15, 2020

Nervous Systems The Nervous System Essay - 1395 Words

So, the sympathetic nervous system sets off a reaction and it â€Å"causes your adrenal glands to release large amounts of adrenaline† (ibid.). You may feel the sudden jolt with an accompanying â€Å"feeling of dread and terror.† It is not in your imagination! A lower level stress does this in the body too. Let’s continue. â€Å"Within seconds, the excess adrenaline can cause: 1) your heart to race, 2) your respiration to become rapid and shallow, 3) profuse sweating, 4) trembling and shaking, and 5) cold hands and feet.† (ibid.). Your sympathetic nervous system also produces muscle contractions. This is the freeze part of fight and flight. It can lead you to experience strong contractions in your chest or throat and feeling like you can t breathe. Other reactions caused by the sympathetic nervous system include excess release of stomach acid, inhibition of digestion, release of red blood cells by the spleen, release of stored-up sugar by the liver, increase in metabolic rate, and dilation of the pupils.† (ibid.). When I first read this years ago, I instantly thought migraine attack. So, you might experience an extreme flush of adrenaline and you might not. But don’t be fooled, the body prepares for each attack and this places stress on the body. On a smaller level the hypothalamic − pituitary − adrenal gland also known as the HPA axis controls the stress response. The hypothalamus, in the brain, regulates basic bodily functions like: stress, body temperature, hunger, sleep andShow MoreRelatedNervous Systems And The Nervous System1749 Words   |  7 PagesThe nervous system is made up of tissues, cells and organs which regulate the body’s responses to stimuli. The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. It also consists of brain, spinal chord, facial nerves, body nerves, sensory neurone and motor neurones, somatic and autonomic nervous systems, parasympathetic and sympathetic. Central nervous system- The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal chord. Peripheral nervous system- The PNS is made upRead MoreThe Nervous System And Peripheral Nervous Systems958 Words   |  4 PagesThe nervous system has three general functions: a sensory function, an interpretative function and a motor function. Sensory nerves gather information from inside the body and the outside environment. The nerves then carry the information to central nervous system (CNS). Nervous tissue consists of two main types of cells: neurons and neuroglia. Neurons also so known as nerve cells ) transmit nerve impulses that move information around the body. Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous SystemRead MoreNervous Systems And The Nervous System1386 Words   |  6 Pages The nervous system is a system of nerve cells and fibres that transmit electrical impulses throughout the whole body. The nervous system is made up of two systems; the central nervous system or CNS and the peripheral nervous system or PNS. The CNS is made up of the brain and the spinal cord (see Figure 1.0 below), these are protected by bone and cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid, and the PNS is the nervous around the rest of the body. The PNS consists of motor neurons, sensory neurons, somatic nervousRead MoreNervous Systems : The Nervous System1971 Words   |  8 PagesABOUT THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system is a complex bodily system responsible for controlling and coordinating numerous functions in the body. Nerves enable certain internal functions involuntarily in the body such as regulation of heart beat, digestive system break down of a meal and the brain interpreting visual signals from the eyes. There are different branches of the nervous system with different functions of each branch. The nervous system coordinates the activities of the body and enablesRead MoreNervous Systems And The Nervous System1267 Words   |  6 PagesThe nervous system is the most crucial and key part of our body. The nervous system is responsible for managing our thinking process, emotions, and body functions. The nervous system has two important parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The nervous system is consisted of many different and connected parts such as nerves and neurons that transmit all different kinds of signals between different parts of our bodies. Essentially, I think of it as the body’s electricalRead MoreThe Nervous System And Nervous Systems1785 Words   |  8 Pagesthings or drinking tea after it cools a bit, every action, reaction is driven by our nervous system. All the information taken in is processed and executed by electrical and chemical signals to and from nervous cells. The nervous system controls all our physiological and psychological reactions. All animals have nervous system, except for very simple ones like sponges (The Nervous System, 2015). Human’s nervous system is probably the most complex one, all of our thoughts, emotions and actions are basedRead MoreThe Nervous System1486 Words   |  6 Pages The nervous system is made up of 2 main parts - the spinal cord and the brain. These two parts combine to make the central nervous system and the sensory and motor nerves which form the peripheral nervous system. Neurons process information in the form of electrical signals, namely nerve impulses, which travel along the axon. Charged ions are not able to enter plasma membranes which make neurons have a difference in ion concentration between the inside and the outside of a neuron. This preventsRead MoreNervous Systems And The Nervous System830 Words   |  4 PagesThe nervous system functions as the communication and control system of the body through electrical and chemical signals. It responds to stimuli through gathering information, interpreting it, and providing an appropriate response. The nervous system is responsible for our thoughts, actions, and emotions (Marieb Hoen, 2013). The nervous system is also responsible for involuntary actions such as blinking (Mandal, 2010) . It is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The nervous systemRead MoreNervous System2092 Words   |  9 PagesThe Nervous System The nervous system is the most complex part of the body, as they govern our thoughts, feelings, and bodily functions. It is an important factor in science because it can lead to new discoveries for cures or diseases. The studies of the nervous system helped lower death rates from heart disease, stroke, accidents, etc. The nervous system is a network of neurons (nerve cells) that that sends information to the brain to be analyzed. Neurons live both in and outside the central nervousRead MoreNervous Systems And The Nervous System1440 Words   |  6 Pages Nervous System The human body is one of the most complex structures known to mankind. To this day, we still do not have all the answers to how our body functions. One of the most complex structures in the human body is the nervous system, which controls the voluntary and involuntary actions, as well as send signals throughout the body. The nervous system is split up into two parts; the peripheral (PNS) and central (CNS) nervous systems. The central nervous system consists of two main parts; the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

An Analysis On Financial Struggles - 1122 Words

College Admissions: An Analysis on Financial Struggles As inflation in the United States continues to rise, as does the cost of many things, specifically college fees. In a world such as the one we live in today, it is extremely hard to attain a successful career without a college degree. Although, one may end up spending their entire life trying to pay off their college debts in order to get a degree. While the knowledge and skills attained during college are extremely beneficial later on in life, many students are unable to go to college due to financial issues. The prices have skyrocketed and left many graduates in debt for years later. Many high school students who plan to attend college in the future, often work an after school job in order to get the money they will be needing for college. College is so expensive due to the tuition as well as room and board with all the necessities and one way I have made financial plans for college is by working an after school job. Tuition for colleges varies between every state and school, but m ost are quite expensive. Especially, if one plans to attend college out of the state they are residing in. It has been calculated that the average annual cost of study in the United States is between $20,000 and $35,000. Evidently, college tuition is already high, but the level and location of the college can also increase this expense. Tution itself is already pricey, but there are also many fees that must be included. For example, evenShow MoreRelatedThe Return Of Depression Economics1437 Words   |  6 Pagesroots of modern and prior financial crisis economics. In his book, The Return of Depression Economics and The Crisis of 2008, Krugman first educates the reader of historical and foreign financial crises which allows for a deeper understanding of the modern financial system. The context provided from the historical analysis proves to be a crucial prospective in such a way that the rest of Krugman’s narrative about modern finance continually relates back to the historic al analysis. From there, Krugman analyzesRead MoreFinancial Analysis : Halliburton Company1354 Words   |  6 PagesHalliburton Company â€Å"Financial analysis consists of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of measuring the relative financial position among firms and industries† (Gibson, 2014, p.216). The analysis provided throughout this work will consist of a vertical and horizontal analysis of both the income statement and balance sheet for Halliburton Company. Based on the findings and assumptions made from the results of the data and investigation through the managers notes and other resource to concludeRead MoreReport Strong TIe case Essay examples808 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿1. Introduction This report provides analysis on the recent performance of Strong Tie Ltd. (STL) and provides suggestions for the management on the future actions. 2. Problem Macro environment negatively affected sales from the start of the recession in late 2007, putting downward pressure on demand in the U.S. The company’s sales declined by 5.44% in 2008, which resulted in 3 year CAGR of 0.92%. Additionally, surge of global steel prices, which more than doubled over the past two years, and aggressiveRead MoreApple Inc. Case Study1494 Words   |  6 PagesCase Study TABLE OF CONTENTS COMPANY OVERVIEW General Description Historical Outline Industry Current Challenges Ethics and Responsibility STRATEGIC INFORMATION Mission Statement Competition SWOT Analysis HISTORICAL FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Historical Financial Information Competitive Financial Analysis Summary FUTURE PLANS Competitive Advantage Recent Performance Business Environment Recommendations Zackery Butler, Connor Daugherty, Stanashia Davis, Gabrielle Drohan, and Lauren Spears Read MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid For The Poor Or Middle Class? Essay1698 Words   |  7 Pagesexcelled students,who struggle to pay for college because of how expensive it is and how little scholarships they receive despite their excellence is important to helping spread the need for change to help decrease student debt.High School athletes who decide to play sports at the collegiate level get the chance to go to college and play their sport while having their expenses covered entirely;despite this, it is an opportunity only given to very few students.Just like athletes struggle most colleges willRead MoreFinancial Analysis Of Siriusxm s Subscription Based Revenues Essay813 Words   |  4 PagesFinancial Analysis SiriusXM’s subscription based revenues, yielded the company $4.2 billion in 2014, growing 10% year over year, continuing a decade long trend of revenue growth. In addition to revenue growth, impressively high margins have produced free cash flow of $1 billion. Despite impressive profitability metrics, financial struggles of the past are till casting long shadows in terms of debt and outstanding shares, yet management is doing their best to dig themselves out of trouble. The keyRead MoreStrategic Planning At Mount Sinai Medical Center1497 Words   |  6 PagesHospital Association FHA s Board of Trustees, Mount Sinai Medical Center was able to overcome their struggles. Sac-Osage Hospital is another organization in the health care industry that encountered lack of internal control which led to the shutting down of the facility. To conclude, without a good internal control system and strategic planning, it is guaranteed that an organization will face some financial instability. Chapter 2: Literature Search Research on Poor Strategic Planning Many haveRead MoreRivalry Power ( High )1152 Words   |  5 Pagescompetition in this industry form a considerable barrier for new entry, producing good quality devices. SWOT Analysis In order to visualize some of the key points that crafts Fitbit’s strategies, some of them have been listed below, using a SWOT matrix model. The analysis covers internal and external elements. They have direct relation to the company’s positioning, market share, value chain, financial capacity, consumer satisfaction, and overall business strengths. STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES †¢ First moverRead MoreWhat Is The Necessity Of Government Financial Compensation For Womens Work In The Home1236 Words   |  5 PagesAn Analysis of the Necessity of Governmental Financial Compensation for Women’s Work in the Home This sociological study will define the necessity of providing governmental financial compensation for women’s work in the home. Historically, the debate over the financial value of domestic labour has been an increasing problem in relation to gender struggles in the Canadian economy. Women/housewives have often been ignored for their work in the home due to the dominance of a patriarchal workforce. TheRead MoreThe Organizational Change And Development Of A Travel And Tourism Organization933 Words   |  4 PagesManagement for Travel and Tourism Name: BALKISU TEJAN, ID: 37007 ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF A TRAVEL AND TOURISM ORGANIZATION: CASE STUDY OF BRITISH AIRWAYS It is essential that an organization undergoes growth and development, Organizational change and innovation. Many investigators have formulated theories related to change management once they begin to understand the importance of organizational change and innovation. This theories

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Financial Cycle and Macroeconomics Method

Question: Discussn about the Financial Cycle and Macroeconomics Method. Answer: Introduction: Real GDP represents a macroeconomic measurement tools that help to reflect the value of all products and services manufactured in a particular economy in a specific year. Real GDP also regarded as the inflation adjusted measurement tools that can indicate standard of living of the economy. However, Gordon (2014) have highlighted the fact that several factors can mislead calculation of real GDP regarding the standard of living. For instance, real GDP does not include contribution of the homeowners in the production activity. Thus, the entire production done in the households does not count in the real GDP section, which can mislead the entire production done in the entire economy largely. Furthermore, real GDP ignore the entire underground economy or illegal production activity happens in a particular country. As per the article by Taati et al. (2015), underground economy plays a major role in the overall production activities in different countries. Thus, it reflects a serious measur ement issue regarding the accumulation of the overall production activities. Furthermore, real GDP also does not focus on measurement of life expectancy and people health, which also can create major impact on the standard of living perspective. Moreover, real GDP also does not include the value of leisure time, which also can create positive impact on the economic welfare. It also excluded expenses of environment condition for the production activity. For that reason, Eastern European economies under communism wrongly appear to provide higher economic welfare than a similar economy. In addition, real GDP also does not indicate the amount of social justice and political freedom enjoyed by the citizens of a specific economy. For that reason, real GDP is regarded as unreliable indicator in evaluating standard of living. Unemployment represents a phenomenon that transpire when an individual who is searching job actively and does not able to find a job. Unemployment often utilize as a tool that evaluates health of the economy. As per the article by Hall (2016), unemployment can be categorized into different parts including frictional, structural, cyclical and natural unemployment. Now, frictional unemployment primarily arises from labour market turnover. On the other hand, structural unemployment causes when technological evaluation or increase level of foreign competition induces business firms to focus on people with different level of skills and knowledge. As a result, it enforces many people to face unemployment challenges. Now, in the present competitive business environment, every organization has to focus on the utilization of several innovative technologies to achieve sustainable growth in the market. For that reason, structural unemployment can be considered as unavoidable in the present mark et situation. On the other hand, Georgellis (2015) several people are also looks for achieving better alternative opportunities in the market to enhance their quality of standard of living. Therefore, it is also obvious that those people will face unemployment for specific time period during the transition. Moreover, unemployment also heavily depends on the lag between potential GDP and real GDP. As it helps to indicate the fact that majority of the economy does not perform at their full potential, which will make unemployment unavoidable in certain situation. Almost all the economists have come to a unanimity that increases in average price level of the products and services will create inflation in the market. It established the fact that anything that increases the price level of the economy will eventually influence the inflation rate to grow higher. Thus, an increase in economic activity or decrease in unemployment can act as a major inflationary trigger. In addition, worker wages, commodity prices are also can be considered as a prime trigger that can have major impact on the market inflation. However, Gal (2015) have mentioned that the increase in average price level is not the only factor that can have impact on the inflation perspective. For instance, speculating buying and real income of the individuals can also have major impact on the market inflation perspective. Many studies have consciously focused on mentioning the impact of price level on the inflation but have not used the term money. Because there is no good statistical correlation between changes in various price index and changes in money (Svensson 2015). It has been assessed that decrease in the value level of the money will induce people to spend more on the products and services. Thus, it will also create inflationary effect in the market. On the other hand, increase in the average price level of the products and services will induce people to spend more in the market. Thus, it can be mentioned that average price level can create inflationary impact on the market. In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) represents the total amount of final demand for goods and services in a particular economy. In fact, AD highlights the amount of products or services will be purchased at all possible price level (Rao 2016). Now, the above figure highlights the fact that AD curve is slopped downward, which highlights the fact that price level and quality level of the products are inversely correlated. As price level decreases, it creates positive impact on national income. As per the article by Abe, Inakura and Tonogi (2016), any decrease in the price level enhances the value of the money in the market, which eventually increases the quantity demanded in a major way. Furthermore, many studies have highlighted three reasons including Keynes's interest-rate effect, Pigou's wealth effect and Mundell-Fleming's exchange-rate effect that enforces the AD curve remains downward. Pigou's wealth effect has mentioned that real value of the money entirely depends on price level. Thus, if price level increases, real value of the money falls that reduce the quantity demanded. Conversely, Keynes's interest-rate effect has mentioned that higher prices consumes majority of the available currency. As a result, people possess lesser amount of currency to purchase products, which eventually reduces quantity demanded. Lastly, Mundell-Fleming's exchange rate indicates the fact that interest rate also fall with the fall in the price level. Now, as interest becomes lower in the domestic economy, foreign investors focuses on the economy to produce more at cheaper prices (Goyal and Tripathi 2015). As a result, it also increases the quantity demanded in the market. Thus, all three factors have highlighted negative relationship between the quantities demanded and price level, which enforces the AD curve to remain downward. Long-run aggregate supply curve reflects the fact that any changes in the aggregate demand curve only causes temporary changes in the total output of an economy. As per the article by Mankiw (2014) labour, capital and technology are the only factors that can have impact on the aggregate supply curve. Thus, supply volume in long-run can only be increased if size of workforce, capital stock or education level of the community increases. Now, increase of any of these factors with the given price level will increase the productivity of a particular economy. Thus, changes in price level will not have any impact on the LRAS curve. It will make LRAS curve to become vertical in long-run. However, Short-run Aggregate Supply Curve (SRAS) have to deal with fixed amount of capital, as new factory or capital cannot be developed in short span of time. In short-run, organizations have to focus on more utilization of the workforce to increase the present level of supply volume (Benassy 2014). Furthermore, in short-run any increase the in price level of goods encourages the organizations to focus on producing more. Thus, it reflects a positive correlation between the price level and quantity supplied, which enforces the SRAS curve to slope upward. References: Abe, N., Inakura, N. and Tonogi, A., 2016. Estimation of Aggregate Demand and Supply Shocks Using Commodity Transaction Data. Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI). Benassy, J.P., 2014. Macroeconomics: an introduction to the non-Walrasian approach. Academic Press. Bernanke, B., Antonovics, K. and Frank, R., 2015. Principles of macroeconomics. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Borio, C., 2014. The financial cycle and macroeconomics: What have we learnt?. Journal of Banking Finance, 45, pp.182-198. Gal, J., 2015. Monetary policy, inflation, and the business cycle: an introduction to the new Keynesian framework and its applications. Princeton University Press. Georgellis, Y., 2015, January. Regional unemployment and employee organizational commitment. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2015, No. 1, p. 12430). Academy of Management. Gordon, R.J., 2014.A New Method of Estimating Potential Real GDP Growth: Implications for the Labor Market and the Debt/GDP Ratio(No. w20423). National Bureau of Economic Research. Goyal, A. and Tripathi, S., 2015. Separating shocks from cyclicality in Indian aggregate supply. Journal of Asian Economics, 38, pp.93-103. Hall, R.E., 2016. Why Has the Unemployment Rate Fared Better than GDP Growth?. Mankiw, N.G., 2014. Principles of macroeconomics. Cengage Learning. Michaillat, P. and Saez, E., 2013. A model of aggregate demand and unemployment. Rao, B.B. ed., 2016. Aggregate demand and supply: a critique of orthodox macroeconomic modelling. Springer. Svensson, L.E., 2015. The possible unemployment cost of average inflation below a credible target. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 7(1), pp.258-296. Taati, S., Hakimipour, N., Alipour, M.S., Saberi, R. and Faramarzi, A., 2015. Analysis of Conditional Asymmetric Volatility of Real GDP and Main Economic Sectors Growth Rates in Iran.International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences,23(1), p.1.a

Sunday, April 12, 2020

The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Essay Example

The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Essay Psychological Bulletin 1998, Vol. 124, No. 2, 262-274 Copyright 1998 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0033-2909/98/S3. 00 The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Psychology: Practical and Theoretical Implications of 85 Years of Research Findings Frank L. Schmidt University of Iowa John E. Hunter Michigan State University This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and Ihe 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of . 63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of . 65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of . 63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed. From the point of view of practical value, the most important property of a personnel assessment method is predictive validity: the ability to predict future job performance, job-related learning (such as amount of learning in training and development programs), and other criteria. We will write a custom essay sample on The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The predictive validity coefficient is directly proportional to the practical economic value (utility) of the assessment method (Brogden, 1949; Schmidt, Hunter, McKenzie, Muldrow, 1979). Use of hiring methods with increased predictive validity leads to substantial increases in employee performance as measured in percentage increases in output, increased monetary value of output, and increased learning of job-related skills (Hunter, Schmidt, Judiesch, 1990). Today, the validity of different personnel measures can be determined with the aid of 85 years of research. The most wellknown conclusion from this research is that for hiring employees without previous experience in the job the most valid predictor of future performance and learning is general mental ability ([GMA], i. e. , intelligence or general cognitive ability; Hunter Hunter, 1984; Ree Earles, 1992). GMA can be measured using commercially available tests. However, many other measures can also contribute to the overall validity of the selection process. These include, for example, measures of onscientiousness and personal integrity, structured employment interviews, and (for experienced workers) job knowledge and work sample tests. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article examines and summarizes what 85 years of research in personnel psychology has revealed about the validity of measures of 19 different selection methods that can be used in making decisions about hiring, training, and developmental assignments. In this sense, this article is an expansion and updating of Hunter and Hunter (1984). In addition, this article examines how well certain combinations of these methods work. These 19 procedures do not all work equally well; the research evidence indicates that some work very well and some work very poorly. Measures of GMA work very well, for example, and graphology does not work at all. The cumulative findings show that the research knowledge now available makes it possible for employers today to substantially increase the productivity, output, and learning ability of their workforces by using procedures that work well and by avoiding those that do not. Finally, we look at the implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance. Determinants of Practical Value (Utility) of Selection Methods Frank L. Schmidt, Department of Management and Organization, University of Iowa; John E. Hunter, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University. An earlier version of this article was presented to Korean Human Resource Managers in Seoul, South Korea, June 11, 1996. The presentation was sponsored by long Yang Company We would like to thank President Wang-Ha Cho of Tong Yang for is support and efforts in this connection. We would also like to thank Deniz Ones and Kuh %on for their assistance in preparing Tables 1 and 2 and Gershon Ben-Shakhar for his comments on research on graphology. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Frank L. Schmidt, Department of Management and Organization, College of Business, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240. Electronic mail may be sent to fra[e mailprotected] edu. The validity of a hiring method is a direct determinant of its practical value, but not the only determinant. Another direct determinant is the variability of job performance. At one extreme, if variability were zero, then all applicants would have exactly the same level of later job performance if hired. In this case, the practical value or utility of all selection procedures would be zero. In such a hypothetical case, it does not matter who is hired, because all workers are the same. At the other extreme, if performance variability is very large, it then becomes important to hire the best performing applicants and the practical utility of valid selection methods is very large. As it happens, this extreme case appears to be the reality for most jobs. 262 VALIDITY AND UTILITY Research over the last 15 years has shown that the variability of performance and output among (incumbent) workers is very large and that it would be even larger if all job applicants were hired or if job applicants were selected randomly from among those that apply (cf. Hunter et al. , 1990; Schmidt Hunter, 1983; Schmidt et al. , 1979). This latter variability is called the applicant pool variability, and in hiring this is the variability that operates to determine practical value. This is because one is selecting new employees from the applicant pool, not from among those already on the job in question. The variability of employee job performance can be measured in a number of ways, but two scales have typically been used: dollar value of output and output as a percentage of mean output. The standard deviation across individuals of the dollar value of output (called SDy) has been found to be at minimum 40% of the mean salary of the job (Schmidt Hunter, 1983; Schmidt et al. , 1979; Schmidt, Mack, Hunter, 1984). The 40% figure is a lower bound value; actual values are typically considerably higher. Thus, if the average salary for a job is $40,000, then SD, is at least $16,000. If performance has a normal distribution, then workers at the 84th percentile produce $16,000 more per year than average workers (i. e. , those at the 50th percentile). And the difference between workers at the 16th percentile ( below average workers) and those at the 84th percentile (superior workers) is twice that: $32,000 per year. Such differences are large enough to be important to the economic health of an organization. Employee output can also be measured as a percentage of mean output; that is, each employees output is divided by the output of workers at the 50th percentile and then multiplied by 100. Research shows that the standard deviation of output as a percentage of average output (called SDf) varies by job level. For unskilled and semi-skilled jobs, the average SDf figure is 19%. For skilled work, it is 32%, and for managerial and professional jobs, it is 48% (Hunter et al. , 1990). These figures are averages based on all available studies that measured or counted the amount of output for different employees. If a superior worker is defined as one whose performance (output) is at the 84th percentile (that is, 1 SD above the mean), then a superior worker in a lower level job produces 19% more output than an average worker, a superior skilled worker produces 32% more output than the average skilled worker, and a superior manager or professional produces output 48% above the average for those jobs. These differences are large and they indicate that the payoff from using valid hiring methods to predict later job performance is quite large. Another determinant of the practical value of selection methods is the selection ratio—the proportion of applicants who are hired. At one extreme, if an organization must hire all who apply for the job, no hiring procedure has any practical value. At the other extreme, if the organization has the luxury of hiring only the top scoring 1%, the practical value of gains from selection per person hired will be extremely large. But few organizations can afford to reject 99% of all job applicants. Actual selection ratios are typically in the . 0 to . 70 range, a range that still produces substantial practical utility. The actual formula for computing practical gains per person hired per year on the job is a three way product (Brogden, 1949; Schmidt et al. , 1979): A? //hire/year = A. rvSDyZ, (when performance is measured in dollar value) At7/hire/year = ArvSD,,Z, 263 (1) (when performance is measured in percentage of average output). (2) In these equations, rv is the difference betwe en the validity of the new (more valid) selection method and the old selection method. If the old selection method has no validity (that is, selection is random), then Ar^ is the same as the validity of the new procedure; that is, AJV, = rv. Hence, relative to random selection, practical value (utility) is directly proportional to validity. If the old procedure has some validity, men the utility gain is directly proportional to Ar w . Z, is the average score on the employment procedure of those hired (in z-score form), as compared to the general applicant pool. The smaller the selection ratio, the higher this value will be. The first equation expresses selection utility in dollars. For example, a typical final figure for a medium complexity job might be $18,000, meaning that increasing the validity of the hiring methods leads to an average increase in output per hire of $18,000 per year. To get the full value, one must of course multiply by the number of workers hired. If 100 are hired, then the increase would be (100)($18,000) = $1,800,000. Finally, one must consider the number of years these workers remain on the job, because the $18,000 per worker is realized each year that worker remains on the job. Of all these factors that affect the practical value, only validity is a characteristic of the personnel measure itself. The second equation expresses the practical value in percentage of increase in output. For example, a typical figure is 9%, meaning that workers hired with the improved selection method will have on average 9% higher output. A 9% increase in labor productivity would typically be very important economically for the firm, and might make the difference between success and bankruptcy. What we have presented here is not, of course, a comprehensive discussion of selection utility. Readers who would like more detail are referred to the research articles cited above and to Boudreau (1983a, 1983b, 1984), Cascio and Silbey (1979), Cronshaw and Alexander (1985), Hunter, Schmidt, and Coggin (1988), Hunter and Schmidt (1982a, 1982b), Schmidt and Hunter (1983), Schmidt, Hunter, Outerbridge, and Tratmer (1986), Schmidt, Hunter, and Pearlman (1982), and Schmidt et al. (1984). Our purpose here is to make three important points: (a) the economic value of gains from unproved hiring methods are typically quite large, (b) these gains are directly proportional to the size of the increase in validity when moving from the old to the new selection methods, and (c) no other characteristic of a personnel measure is as important as predictive validity. If one looks at the two equations above, one sees that practical value per person hired is a three way product. One of the three elements in that three way product is predictive validity. The other two—SD y or SDP and Z,—are equally important, but they are characteristics of the job or the situation, not of the personnel measure. 264 SCHMIDT AND HUNTER Validity of Personnel Assessment Methods: 85 Years of Research Findings Research studies assessing the ability of personnel assessment methods to predict future job performance and future learning (e. g. , in training programs) have been conducted since the first decade of the 20th century. However, as early as the 1920s it became apparent that different studies conducted on the same assessment procedure did not appear to agree in their results. Validity estimates for the same method and same job were quite different for different studies. During the 1930s and 1940s the belief developed that this state of affairs resulted from subtle differences between jobs that were difficult or impossible for job analysts and job analysis methodology to detect. That is, researchers concluded that the validity of a given procedure really was different in different settings for what appeared to be basically the same job, and that the conflicting findings in validity studies were just reflecting this fact of reality. This belief, called the theory of situational specificity, remained dominant in personnel psychology until the late 1970s when it was discovered that most of the differences across studies were due to statistical and measurement artifacts and not to real differences in the jobs (Schmidt Hunter, 1977; Schmidt, Hunter, Pearlman, Shane, 1979). The largest of these artifacts was simple sampling error variation, caused by the use of small samples in the studies. (The number of employees per study was usually in the 40-70 range. This realization led to the development of quantitative techniques collectively called metaanalysis that could combine validity estimates across studies and correct for the effects of these statistical and measurement artifacts (Hunter Schmidt, 1990; Hunter, Schmidt, Jackson, 1982). Studies based on meta-analysis provided more accurate estimates of the average operational validity and showed that the level of real variability of validities was usually quite sma ll and might in fact be zero (Schmidt, 1992; Schmidt et a]. 1993). In fact, the findings indicated that the variability of validity was not only small or zero across settings for the same type of job, but was also small across different kinds of jobs (Hunter, 1980; Schmidt, Hunter, Pearlman, 1980). These findings made it possible to select the most valid personnel measures for any job. They also made it possible to compare the validity of different personnel measures for jobs in general, as we do in this article. Table 1 summarizes research findings for the prediction of performance on the job. The first column of numbers in Table 1 shows the estimated mean validity of 19 selection methods for predicting performance on the job, as revealed by metaanalyses conducted over the last 20 years. Performance on the job was typically measured using supervisory ratings of job performance, but production records, sales records, and other measures were also used. The sources and other information about these validity figures are given in the notes to Table 1. Many of the selection methods in Table 1 also predict jobrelated learning; that is, the acquisition of job knowledge with experience on the job, and the amount learned in training and development programs. However, the overall amount of research on the prediction of learning is less. For many of the procedures in Table 1, there is little research evidence on their ability to predict future job-related-leaming. Table 2 summarizes available research findings for the prediction of performance in training programs. The first column in Table 2 shows the mean validity of 10 selection methods as revealed by available meta-analyses. In the vast majority of the studies included in these meta-analyses, performance in training was assessed using objective measures of amount learned on the job; trainer ratings of amount learned were used in about 5% of the studies. Unless otherwise noted in Tables 1 and 2, all validity estimates in Tables 1 and 2 are corrected for the downward bias due to measurement error in the measures of job performance and to range restriction on the selection method in incumbent samples relative to applicant populations. Observed validity estimates so corrected estimate operational validities of selection methods when used to hire from applicant pools. Operational validities are also referred to as true validities. In the pantheon of 19 personnel measures in Table 1, GMA (also called general cognitive ability and general intelligence) occupies a special place, for several reasons. First, of all procedures that can be used for all jobs, whether entry level or advanced, it has the highest validity and lowest application cost. Work sample measures are slightly more valid but are much more costly and can be used only with applicants who already know the job or have been trained for the occupation or job. Structured employment interviews are more costly and, in some forms, contain job knowledge components and therefore are not suitable for inexperienced, entry level applicants. The assessment center and job tryout are both much more expensive and have less validity. Second, the research evidence for the validity of OMA measures for predicting job performance is stronger than that for any other method (Hunter, 1986; Hunter Schmidt, 1996; Ree Earles, 1992; Schmidt Hunter, 1981). Literally thousands of studies have been conducted over the last nine decades. By contrast, only 89 validity studies of the structured interview have been conducted (McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt, Mauer, 1994). Third, GMA has been shown to be the best available predictor of job-related learning. It is the best predictor of acquisition of job knowledge on the job (Schmidt Hunter, 1992; Schmidt, Hunter, Outerbridge, 1986) and of performance in job training programs (Hunter, 1986; Hunter Hunter, 1984; Ree Earles, 1992). Fourth, the theoretical foundation for GMA is stronger than for any other personnel measure. Theories of ntelligence have been developed and tested by psychologists for over 90 years (Brody, 1992; Carroll, 1993; Jensen, 1998). As a result of this massive related research literature, the meaning of the construct of intelligence is much clearer than, for example, the meaning of what is measured by interviews or assessment centers (Brody, 1992; Hunter, 1986; Jensen, 1998). The value of . 51 in Table 1 for the validity of GMA is from a very large met a-analytic study conducted for the U. S. Department of Labor (Hunter, 1980; Hunter Hunter, 1984). The database for this unique meta-analysis included over 32,000 employees in 515 widely diverse civilian jobs. This meta-analysis examined both performance on the job and performance in job training programs. This meta-analysis found that the validity of GMA for predicting job performance was . 58 for professional-managerial jobs, . 56 for high level complex technical jobs, . 51 for medium complexity jobs, . 40 for semi-skilled jobs, and . 23 for completely unskilled jobs. The validity for the middle complexity level of jobs (. 51) —which includes 62% of all VALIDITY AND UTILITY 265 Table 1 Predictive Validity for Overall Job Performance of General Mental Ability (GMA) Scores Combined With a Second Predictor Using (Standardized) Multiple Regression Standardized regression weights % increase in validity Personnel measures GMA testsWork sample tests* Integrity tests Conscientiousness tests1 Employment interviews (structured)11 Employment interviews (unstructured/ Job knowledge tests8 Job tryout procedure11 Peer ratings1 T E behavioral consistency method1 Reference checksk Job experience (years)1 Biographical data measures111 Assessment centers T E point method Years of education*1 Interests* Graphology Age- Validity (r) Multiple R Gain in validity from adding supplement GMA Supplement .51 . 54 . 41 . 31 . 51 . 38 . 48 . 44 . 49 . 45 .26 .18 . 35 . 37 . 11 . 10 . 10 . 02 -. 01 .63 . 65 . 60 . 63 . 55 . 58 . 58 . 58 . 58 . 57 . 54 . 52 . 53 . 52 . 52 . 52 . 51 . 51 .12 . 14 . 09 . 12 . 04 . 07 . 07 . 07 . 07 . 06 . 03 . 01 . 02 . 01 . 01 . 01 . 00 . 00 24% 27% 18% 24% 8% 14% 14% 14% 14% 12% 6% 2% 4% 2% 2% 2% 0% 0% .36 . 51 . 51 . 39 . 43 . 36 . 40 . 35 . 39 . 51 . 51 . 45 . 43 . 39 . 51 . 51 . 51 . 51 .41 . 41 . 31 . 39 . 22 . 31 . 20 . 31 . 31 . 26 . 18 . 13 . 15 . 29 . 10 . 10 . 02 -. 01 Note. T E = training and experience. The percentage of increase in validity is also the percentage of increase in utility (practical value). All of the validities presented are based on the most current meta-analytic results for the various predictors. See Schmidt, Ones, and Hunter (1992) for an overview. All of the validities in this table are for the criterion of overall job performance. Unless otherwise noted, all validity estimates are corrected for the downward bias due to measurement error in die measure of job performance and range restriction on the predictor in incumbent samples relative to applicant populations. The correlations between GMA and other predictors are corrected for range restriction but not for measurement error in either measure (thus they are smaller than fully corrected mean values in the literature). These correlations represent observed score correlations between selection methods in applicant populations. From Hunter (1980). The value used for the validity of GMA is the average validity of GMA for medium complexity jobs (covering more than 60% of all jobs in die United States). Validities are higher for more complex jobs and lower for less complex jobs, as described in the text. From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 10). The correction for range restriction was not possible in these data. The correlation between work sample scores and ability scores is . 38 (Schmidt, Hunter; Outerbridge, 1986). Cid From Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt (1993, Table 8). The figure of . 41 is from predictive validity studies conducted on job applicants. The validity of . 31 for conscientiousn ess measures is from Mount and Barrick (1995, Table 2). The correlation between integrity and ability is zero, as is the correlation between conscientiousness and ability (Ones, 1993; Ones et al. , 1993). -f from McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt, and Mauer (1994, Table 4). folues used are those from studies in which the job performance ratings were for research purposes only (not administrative ratings). The correlations between interview scores and ability scores are from Huffcutt, Roth, and McDaniel (1996, Table 3). The correlation for structured interviews is . 30 and for unstructured interviews, . 38. From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 11). The correction for range restriction was not possible in these data. The correlation between job knowledge scores and GMA scores is . 48 (Schmidt, Hunter, Outerbridge, 1986). From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 9). No correction for range restriction (if any) could be made. (Range restriction is unlikely with this selection method. ) The correlat ion between job tryout ratings and ability scores is estimated at . 38 (Schmidt, Hunter, Outerbridge, 1986); that is, it was taken to be the same as that between job sample tests and ability. Use of the mean correlation between supervisory performance ratings and ability scores yields a similar value (. 35, unconnected for measurement error). From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 10). No correction for range restriction (if any) could be made. The average fully corrected correlation between ability and peer ratings of job performance is approximately . 55. If peer ratings are based on an average rating from 10 peers, the familiar Spearman-Brown formula indicates that the interrater reliability of peer ratings is approximately . 91 (Viswesvaran, Ones, Schmidt, 1996). Assuming a reliability of . 90 for the ability measure, the correlation between ability scores and peer ratings is . 55v^91(-90) = . 50. From McDaniel, Schmidt, and Hunter (1988a). These calculations are based on an estimate of the correlation between T E behavioral consistency and ability of . 0. This estimate reflects the fact that the achievements measured by this procedure depend on not only personality and other noncognitive characteristics, but also on mental ability. k From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 9). No correction for range restriction (if any) was possible. In the absence of any data, the correlation between reference checks and ability was t aken as . 00. Assuming a larger correlation would lead to lower estimated incremental validity. From Hunter (1980), McDaniel, Schmidt, and Hunter (1988b), and Hunter and Hunter (1984). In the only relevant meta-analysis, Schmidt, Hunter, and Outerbridge (1986, Table 5) found the correlation between job experience and ability to be . 00. This value was used here. m The correlation between biodata scores and ability scores is . 50 (Schmidt, 1988). Both the validity of . 35 used here and the intercorrelation of . 50 are based on the Supervisory Profile Record Biodata Scale (Rothstein, Schmidt, Erwin, Owens, and Sparks, 1990). (The validity for the Managerial Profile Record Biodata Scale in predicting managerial promotion and advancement is higher [. 52; Carlson, Scullen, Schmidt, Rothstein, Erwin, 1998]. However, rate of promotion is a measure different from overall performance on ones current job and managers are less representative of the general working population than are first line supervisors). From Gaugler, Rosenthal, Thornton, and Benson (1987, Table 8). The correlation between assessment center ratings and ability is estimated at . 50 (Collins, 1998). It should be noted that most assessment centers use ability tests as part of the evaluation process; Gaugler et al. (1987) found that 74% of the 106 assessment centers they examined used a written test of intelligence (see their Table 4). From McDaniel, Schmidt, and Hunter (I988a, Table 3). The calculations here are based on a zero correlation between the T E point method and ability; the assumption of a positive correlation would at most lower the estimate of incremental validity from . 01 to . 00. p From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 9). For purposes of these calculations, we assumed a zero correlation between years of educ ation and ability. The reader should remember that this is the correlation within the applicant pool of individuals who apply to get a particular job. In the general population, the correlation between education and ability is about . 55. Even within applicant pools there is probably at least a small positive correlation; thus, our figure of . 01 probably overestimates the incremental validity of years of education over general mental ability. Assuming even a small positive value for the correlation between education and ability would drive the validity increment of . 01 toward . 00. q From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 9). The general finding is that interests and ability are uncorrelated (Holland, 1986), and that was assumed to be the case here. From Neter and Ben-Shakhar (1989), BenShakhar (1989), Ben-Shakhar, Bar-Hillel, Bilu, Ben-Abba, and Flug (1986), and Bar-Hillel and Ben-Shakhar (1986). Graphology scores were assumed to be uncorrelated with mental ability. B From Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 9). Age was assumed to be unrelated to ability within applicant pools. 266 Table 2 SCHMIDT AND HUNTER Predictive Validity for Over all Performance in Job Training Programs of General Mental Ability (GMA) Scores Combined With a Second Predictor Using (Standardized) Multiple Regression Standardized regression weights % increase in validity Personnel measures GMA TestsIntegrity tests Conscientiousness tests6 Employment interviews (structured and unstructured)11 Peer ratings Reference checks1 Job experience (years)8 Biographical data measures1 Years of education Interest^ Validity (r) Multiple K Gain in validity from adding supplement GMA Supplement .56 .38 . 30 . 35 . 36 . 23 . 01 . 30 . 20 . 18 . 67 . 65 . 59 . 57 . 61 . 56 . 56 . 60 . 59 . 11 . 09 . 03 . 01 . 05 . 00 . 00 . 04 . 03 20% 16% 5% 1. 4% .56 . 56 . 59 . 51 . 56 . 56 . 55 . 56 . 56 .38 . 30 . 19 . 11 . 23 . 01 . 03 . 20 . 18 9% 0% 0% 7% 5% Note. The percentage of increase in validity is also the percentage of increase in utility (practical value). All of the validities presented are based on the most current mela-analytic results reported for the various predictors. All of the validities in this table are for the criterion of overall performance in job training programs. Unless otherwise noted, all validity estimates are corrected for the downward bias due to measurement error in the measure of job performance and range restriction on the predictor in incumbent samples relative to applicant populations. All correlations between GMA and other predictors are corrected for range restriction but not for measurement error. These correlations represent observed score correlations between selection methods in applicant populations. The validity of GMA is from Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 2). It can also be found in Hunter (1980). *lt; The validity of . 38 for integrity tests is from Schmidt, Ones, and Viswesvaran (1994). Integrity tests and conscientiousness tests have been found to correlate zero with GMA (Ones, 1993; Ones, Viswesvaran Schmidt, 1993). The validity of . 30 for conscientiousness measures is from the meta-analysis presented by Mount and Barrick (1995, Table 2). d The validity of interviews is from McDaniel, Whetzel, Schmidt, and Mauer (1994, Table 5). McDaniel et al. reported values of . 34 and . 36 for structured and unstructured interviews, respectively. However, this small difference of . 02 appears to be a result of second order sampling error (Hunter Schmidt, 1990, Ch. 9). We therefore used the average value of . 35 as the validity estimate for structured and unstructured interviews. The correlation between interviews and ability scores (. 32) is the overall figure from Huffcutt, Roth, and McDaniel (1996, Table 3) across all levels of interview structure. * The validity for peer ratings is from Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 8). These calculations are based on an estimate of the correlation between ability and peer ratings of . 50. (See note i to Table 1). No correction for range restriction (if any) was possible in the data. The validity of reference checks is from Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 8). The correlation between reference checks and ability was taken as . 0. Assumption of a larger correlation will reduce the estimate of incremental validity. No correction for range restriction was possible. The validity of job experience is from Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 6). These calculations are based on an estimate of the correlation between job experience and ability of zero. (See note 1 to Table 1). * The validity of biographical data measures is from Hunte r and Hunter (1984, Table 8). This validity estimate is not adjusted for range restriction (if any). The correlation between biographical data measures and ability is estimated at . 0 (Schmidt, 1988). The validity of education is from Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 6). The correlation between education and ability within applicant pools was taken as zero. (See note p to Table 1). The validity of interests is from Hunter and Hunter (1984, Table 8). The correlation between interests and ability was taken as zero (Holland, 1986). the jobs in the U. S. economy—is the value entered in Table 1. This category includes skilled blue collar jobs and mid-level white collar jobs, such as upper level clerical and lower level administrative jobs. Hence, the conclusions in this article apply mainly to the middle 62% of jobs in the U. S. economy in terms of complexity. The validity of . 51 is representative of findings for GMA measures in other meta-analyses (e. g. , Pearlman et al. , 1980) and it is a value that produces high practical utility. As noted above, GMA is also an excellent predictor of jobrelated learning. It has been found to have high and essentially equal predictive validity for performance (amount learned) in job training programs for jobs at all job levels studied. In

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

X29 essays

X29 essays I have chosen to do my book report on the book The Grumman X-29, by Steve Pace, for a couple of reasons. Ive seen the X-29 in flight at an air show and was mystified by its wing design. I asked myself how could something like that fly at all? This book shed some light on the mysteries of how the X-29 flies and performs. I am going to tell you a little about the book and the X-29, so sit back relax and enjoy the fruits of my reading labor. The X-29 is a single-engine aircraft 48.1 feet long. Its forward-swept wing has a span of 27.2 feet. Each X-29 was powered by a General Electric F404-GE-400 engine producing 16,000 pounds of thrust. Empty weight was 13,600 pounds, while takeoff weight was 17,600 pounds. The wing substructure and the basic airframe itself are aluminum and titanium. Wing trailing edge actuators controlling camber are mounted externally in streamlined fairings because of the thinness of the supercritical airfoil. The aircraft had a maximum operating altitude of 50,000 feet, a maximum speed of Mach 1.6, and a flight endurance time of approximately one hour. Overall, VFC, like the forward-swept wings, showed promise for the future of aircraft design. The X-29 did not demonstrate the overall reduction in aerodynamic drag that earlier studies had suggested, but this discovery should not be interpreted to mean that a more optimized design with forward-swept wings could not yield a reduction in drag. Overall, the X-29 program demonstrated several new technologies as well as new uses of proven technologies. These included: aero elastic tailoring to control structural divergence; use of a relatively large, close-coupled canard for longitudinal control; control of an aircraft with extreme instability while still providing good handling qualities; use of three-surface longitudinal control; use of a double-hinged trailing-edge flap at supersonic speeds; control effectiveness at high angle of attack; v...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Performance Management in Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Performance Management in Education - Essay Example Average spending per pupil is approaching that of independent schools. Rather than the lack of resources, the reason for poor performance lies in the structure of the education system. In the absence of parental choice, British schools have been subjected to increasingly strong direction from central government. While the aim was to achieve a minimum level of achievement for all children, the result has been persistently low standards, inequity and burdensome regulation Research (Oct,2005) done by the independent think tank Reform shows that radical education reform, based on allowing parents to choose either state or independent schools at the taxpayers' expense, is supported by a half of all voters and would create thousands of new schools. A Reform study, The potential benefits of real education reform in England, includes detailed research into the system of school choice in Sweden, held up last week by the former Minister Alan Milburn as a model for the forthcoming White Paper on secondary education. Sweden has seen a dramatic increase in the number of taxpayer-funded independent schools in all areas of the country, including rural and deprived areas. If the Swedish experience was replicated in England, real reform would lead to over 3,500 new schools in twelve years. Reform also released an ICM poll on education reform. ... If the Swedish experience was replicated in England, real reform would lead to over 3,500 new schools in twelve years. Reform also released an ICM poll on education reform. It shows that 76 per cent of voters think that state education is in need of a fundamental review and 49 per cent support choice of both state and independent schools on the Swedish model. A majority of 18-34 year-olds support radical reform. The study shows that the Government's general election manifesto gives it the mandate it needs to introduce radical reform. But unless the key principle of reform is accepted - that taxpayers' money can follow parental choice freely into the independent sector, allowing new schools to open according to parental demand rather than Local Education Authority decision - any change will be slow and any improvement limited. The Reform report shows: 1. The Prime Minister and other senior Labour figures have said that a key objective for this Parliament is to increase the number and variety of state schools in England. They have argued for barriers to the opening of schools to be removed and for new schools to be run by private and voluntary providers. 2. This objective is right. At present the provision of schools and school places is not demand-led by parents but centrally planned by Local Education Authorities. The effect of planning decisions over the last two decades has been to reduce the number of schools and to limit the choices available for parents. Since 1984, the total number of state schools has fallen by 13 per cent (a fall of 3,267 schools) in a time of rising pupil numbers. Prime Minister and other senior Labour figures have made clear that a key aim of their policy for Parliament is to increase the number and variety of state schools